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Hematemesis is a condition in which blood is expelled either through vomit or stool. The blood can be red, brown, or even black in appearance. This blood would not be like that of a nosebleed or gum injury. It is straight-up spitting direct blood from your mouth.
It is mostly regurgitation of stomach contents mixed with blood or the blood itself. Vomiting blood is a serious condition, and it may indicate:
- Organ rupture
- Internal bleeding
- Organ bleeding
Nonetheless, you should never ignore it and rush to the hospital if you ever experience blood in your vomit.
Causes of Hematemesis
Blood comes in vomit from the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and upper part of the small intestine called the duodenum. Likewise, pancreatic problems can also cause blood in vomit. Several reasons can cause blood in your vomit, and all of them a pretty serious and require immediate medical attention.
Causes of hematemesis are:
- Esophagus tear caused by excessive vomiting
- Swollen veins in the lower part of the stomach or esophagus due to alcohol abuse
- Bleeding in the stomach
- Bleeding in the duodenal
- Swelling of the esophagus
- A benign tumour in the stomach
- A benign tumour in the esophagus
- A cancerous tumour in the stomach or esophagus
- Inflammation in the stomach
- A severe recent injury to the abdomen
- Pancreatic cancer
- Taking high doses of aspirin
- Inflammation of the small intestine
People always wonder if vomiting blood means death. However, it is not always the case. Hematemesis can cause shock and trauma, including:
- Fast and shallow breathing
- Low urine flow
- Pale skin
- Rapid heartbeat
- Clammy skin
- Blurry vision
If not given timely medical attention, the shock can lead to permanent organ damage, dysfunction, and eventually death. To consult with best Gastroenterologist through Marham.
You may experience additional health problems depending on what causes blood in your vomits. These include:
It is one of the most common complications that you may incur as a result of excessive bleeding. It is characterized as the deficiency of red blood cells, particularly when the blood is lost rapidly and at once.
On the contrary, people with conditions like gastritis may become anemic over the course of a few weeks or months. In such cases, the individuals can remain anemic without symptoms and only find out when they get a blood test.
If you are not careful with getting instant medical attention, vomiting blood can have fatal outcomes.
To properly diagnose the underlying cause of blood in your vomit, your primary care physician may ask a series of questions. It will help them to assess your symptoms better. Your doctor may also perform an endoscopy of the GI while keeping you sedated.
A small instrument with a camera at one end, called an endoscope, will be sent down your throat and into your stomach to assess its content and examine any source of internal bleeding. They will also need you to take a blood test to determine the amount of blood lost.
If it is suspected that the bleeding is due to other reasons, like cancer, further testing will be done to look inside your body thoroughly. These tests can reveal if there are any ruptured organs or unusual growth in the organs. These tests include:
- CT scans
- PET scans
Your doctor can also conduct a biopsy of the affected tissue to thoroughly examine the cells and determine the cause of blood in your vomits.
Treatment of Hematemesis
The medical team’s first attempt is always to bring down the blood pressure, stabilize your breathing, and cope with any other condition that may be related to excessive blood loss. In such cases, you may need a blood transfusion, medical attention to lower your blood pressure through medication, and breathing assistance. In an extreme scenario, you may need an IV or even surgery.
Once the medical team is successful in making a patient stabilize, several tests are conducted. These include:
- Complete blood count test
- Liver function test
- Nuclear medical scan
- Rectal assessment
Your treatment will depend on the cause of blood in your vomits. Once it is determined, you will get a proper treatment that you must follow strictly to ensure you do not vomit blood again.
If you ever found blood in your vomits or stool, waste no time and visit the hospital immediately. Immediate medical attention will be life-saving for you at such a point. It is always better to consult a professional for better guidance. Book an appointment with the best Gastroenterologist in Rawalpindi through Marham.